Handbook of Nonmedical Applications of Liposomes: Theory and Basic Sciences Vol. 1 : Theory and Basic Sciences

The relevant fundamental rules are well-known to those skilled in the art.Thereafter, non-entrapped active substance can be removed, if necessary.Other advantageous cations having this property essentially include all the other nitrogen bases.It is also convenient to use the liposomes in the production of nanocapsules.In a preferred embodiment of the invention, the spacer is a lower alkyl residue of linear, branched or cyclic structure, which has from 0 to 8 C atoms and includes 0, 1 or 2 ethylenically unsaturated bonds.Passion Vol. 3 (v. 3). Handbook of Nonmedical Applications of Liposomes, Volume I: Theory and Basic Sciences.Three had previous advanced degrees from diverse nonmedical.As is well-known, the interaction of a polyelectrolyte with charge carriers of the liposomal membrane may give rise to demixing of membrane components and formation of lipid clusters.

Theory and Basic Sciences. Handbook of Nonmedical Applications of Liposomes, Vol IV from Gene Delivery and.These substances are of technical interest in the production of liposomes.

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Typical reactions are esterification, amidation, addition of amines to double bonds, etherification, or reductive amination.Provides a unique mix of theory, practical advice and applications,.Cationic amphiphile compositions for intracellular delivery of therapeutic molecules.The disulfide bridge can be reduced under physiological conditions, e.g. by contact with the cytosol, the anionic head group then is liberated, and the overall molecule assumes a positive charge, thereby enabling fusion with the cell membrane.

Basic sciences for anesthesiology exams. Basic Science - Aneasthesia. protons. etc. Molecular orbital theory considers bonding as a coalescence of the electron.Histidine derivatives.Coupling of the sterol preferablyproceeds via the amino group as R 2.In this event, R 1 is an anion andcan be e.g. H or ahydroxycarboxylic acid or one ormore amino acids.Above the pI the compound has a negative charge, and below the pI it is to be regarded as a positive cation, the pI of the compounds or sterol derivatives according to the invention ranging between 4.5 and 8.5.

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Other properties supporting such uses are good loadability with active substances and well-directed removal of these substances by changing the pH value or by permeabilization of the membrane.Surprisingly, it has been found that some of the compounds of the invention exhibit reduced cytotoxicity.These fixed charges then can be overcompensated by the variable charges described above.According to the prior art, pH-sensitive liposomes particularly comprise cholesterol hemisuccinate (CHEMS).

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For pH- and time-dependent permeability measurements, the liposomes were diluted to 0.2 mM in buffer of the respective pH, and the fluorescence was measured after 30 and 60 minutes, respectively.Conveniently, active substances are enclosed in the liposomes, which active substances can be used e.g. in cancer therapy and in the therapy of severe infections.

The second amino group canbe alkylated, for example, so as toobtain a higher pKa value.

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Phospholipid Strategies in Biomineralization and. for biomaterial applications by entrapment of liposomes within polymer.In particular, it is convenient to use functional groups or molecule fragments as charge carriers, which are in dissociated form in a pH range between 4 and 9.

Without intending to be limiting, the invention will be explained in more detail with reference to the following examples.This effect is observed to be particularly strong at neutral pH values, because the inherent charge of the compound is low in this case.The sterol derivatives and liposomes according to the invention involve several advantages.A liposomal vector for the transport of active substances must satisfy at least three preconditions: it must have low toxicity, entrap the active substance firmly and stably, and be compatible with serum or blood.To this end, an active substance to be enclosed can be added to a medium under conditions of high permeability, followed by adjusting conditions of low permeability.Particularly preferred amphoteric substances include, for example, the following compounds in Table 1, wherein R 1 or R 2 represent the lipophilic portion of the amphoteric sterol, and ( ) n represents other portions of the molecule in the sense of the above-defined spacer.Handbook of Nonmedical Applications of Liposomes, Volume I: Theory and Basic Sciences Hardcover Books- Buy Handbook of Nonmedical Applications of Liposomes, Volume I.Volume 4 of Handbook of Nonmedical Applications of Liposomes: Theory and Basic Sciences,.The invention also relates to methods of loading liposomes with active substances, using a binding pH value for encapsulation and a second pH value to remove unbound active substances.

Advantageously, thestructure can be derived fromserine, aspartic acid or glutamicacid, or from lysine or ornithine.However, in order to retain this latter feature, it is important that substitution with a polar molecule be at the 3-position of the sterol.


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Owing to their chelating properties, such liposomes can be used in biochemical diagnostics and in pharmaceutical therapy.

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